Chios Mills
Chios Island Travel Guide, Chios Greece
The Island of Chios
Chios Island Travel Guide, Chios Greece
Chios Island Travel Guide, Chios Greece
Chios Island Travel Guide, Chios Greece
Chios Island Travel Guide, Chios Greece

Fortress of Chios

North of the harbor of Chios lies the Kastro or Fortress of the town (approx. 400 x 450 meters) which played an important role in the medieval and modern history of the island as a center of both civil and military life. The original Byzantine structure (9th and 10th centuries) was incorporated into the later Genoese fortress, where important activities of the Civitas Chii administrative center took place.
The building phases of each conqueror from the 14th to the 18th centuries are evident in its present form, and indicate the care that was taken in the fortification of the side facing inland. However , the bombings of 1828, the earthquakes of 1881 and the construction of the harbor have changed its contour.

One of the entries of the fortress

According to information from notarized documents, the Fortress was also the seat of the Administration, the Castellano, and the Latin bishop. But the churches and mansions located there and admired by many travelers throughout the years, are unidentified to this day. During the Turkish occupation, the fortress was inhabited exclusively by Turks and Jews, and after the Asia Minor catastrophe, by refugees.
The main entrance to the fortress is through the South Gate (Porta Maggiore) above the moat and is protected by a circular tower to its right, adorned with pilasters, a cornice and symmetrical turrets. A large inscription of the Lion of St. Mark and the name of the Doge, Silvestro Valerio, which is barely visible today as a result of the pounding by the Turks, attests to the efforts of the Venetians to reconstruct the gate after 1694.

Giustiniani palace

A vaulted passageway leads to the "palace" Giustiniani, an interesting building of the 15th century which was recently restored and is used as an exhibit area for early Christian mosaics, Byzantine frescoes and wood carvings. In the same area is the "gloomy dungeon" where 70 Chian Elders and the Metropolitan Bishop Platon were imprisoned and later hanged (ApriE23, 1822 during the Greek War of Independence). The dungeon is a square area 10 x 8.50 meters roofed with four ridged cross-vaults. Nearby is the small cemetery where a number of notable Turks were buried between 1822 and 1890. The most distinguished of these is Admiral Kara Ali of the Turkish Navy , who was killed when Constantine Kanaris from Psara blew up the naval flagship Bourlota Saimaz, June 6-7, 1822 following the massacre of Chios. The tomb is a marble sarcophagus with two columns, one of which is adorned with leaf motifs, characteristic of Turkish baroque.

Wall of the fortress

A laudatory epitaph by the poet Fourouyi is carved on one of the columns.
On the main street of the Fortress is the mosque, Bairakli Tzami, as well as the church of St. George (once the Eske Tzami). Further on, at the north corner of the fortress, the traveler sees the Turkish baths of the 18th century with their round dome, as well as the circular tower of Zeno with its fortifications which comprise the structural phase of the Venetians in 1694. The sea-wall which is in poor condition, contains evidence of the Genoese period. The entrance to the harbor of Chios was once controlled by the small fortified Bourtzi which does not exist today.
Other worthwhile sights in the Fortress are the Krya Vrysi, a semi-underground cistern of Byzantine design, and Koules, a Turkish tower constructed of ancient building materials. The porous stone of Thymiana, alternating with the gray stone of Phokaia, and the various other construction materials, give the Fortress a distinct image from the west side. The coat-of-arms of Genoa and the Giustiniani, as well as the date, 1425,are still preserved in their original state on the Tower behind the city hall.

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Chios Town, Kambos, Vrondados, Anavatos, Avgonyma, Karyes, Thymiana, Neohori, Vassileoniko, Vavili, Halkios, Ververato, Dafnonas, Aghios Georgios Sikousis, Zifias


Ancient Times
Ancient Chios Town, Daskalopetra, Drakodospilos, Rimokastro
Early Christian Times
St. Isidore’s Basilica
Medieval Times
Nea Moni, Virgin Krena, Aghios Georgios of Chios Fortress, Aghios Georgios Sikousis, Kournas Monastery, Giustiniani Palace, Fortress of Chios, Anavatos, Watchtowers
Late Byzantine Times
Monastery of Saints Anargyri, Monastery of Aghios Menas
Post Byzantine and Later Times
Kambos, Marble Fountains, Mosque -Tzami, Later Buildings, Saints Constantine and Helen Nunnery, Panaghia Voethia Nunnery (The Virgin of Assistance), Aghios Georgios Reston, Aghios Stefanos Monastery, The Cloister of Aghios Markos, Myrsinidi Monastery, The Cloister of Aghion Pateron (The Holy Fathers), Mills, Aghia Skepi Isihastirio (The Retreat of Saintly Protection)

Chios Beaches

Bella Vista, Kontari, Karfas, Megas Limnionas, Aghia Fotia, Daskalopetra, Tagma, Afanis Beach, Lo Beach

Date: Παρασκευή, 25 Ιουλίου 2008
Marcella, USA
Comment:Mary, my grandparents were from Chios. My great granmother’s name was Stamatia Andreadis (married last name is Muzucos Psyllas). I’m not sure if Andreadis is a common last name but the city my grandmother Margaro grew up in was Vrontados.
Date: Πέμπτη, 28 Ιουνίου 2007
mary andreadis, lancaster pennsylvania
Comment:my father was from chios the little village was st georgios his name was john james andreadis if you know anybody with that name i would like hear from them or write to them if i got address we were in greece in 1956 beatuiful country .my name is mary consylman adress is 243 brenneman road lancster pennsylvania 17603 i would like to no more about my family